Digital Media and Information Literacy Framework

Scroll through for quick information on the Framework, or click to download the Digital Media and Information Literacy Framework.

Learning Outcomes

The Framework is targeted at Singaporeans and sets out 5 key learning outcomes (LOs):

  1. Appreciate the benefits, risks and possibilities that technology can bring.
  2. Understand how online platforms and digital technologies work.
  3. Understand how to use information responsibly.
  4. Understand how to protect oneself on the internet.
  5. Understand how to use digital technologies safely and responsibly.
LO1

Appreciate the benefits, risks and possibilities that technology can bring

Learning Objectives

Individuals will learn:

  • Why it is important to keep up with the rapidly advancing technology
  • How technology can bring both benefits and risks
Suggested Focus Areas

Technological Advancements and it's Impact on Our Lives

Benefits and Risks of Technologies

LO2

Understand how online platforms and digital technologies work

Learning Objectives

Individuals will learn:

  • How digital footprints work
  • How algorithms are used on the Internet
  • How digital advertising works
  • How cognitive blases work
Suggested Focus Areas

Digital Footprints

Algorithms on Search Engines and Social Media

Digital Advertising

The Human Factor and Social Media

LO3

Understand how to use information responsibly

Learning Objectives

Individuals will learn:

  • What are some examples of information sources
  • How to assess the credibility of an information source
  • What is the difference between fact and opinion
  • What are the different types of false information
  • What is the difference between disinformation and misinformation
  • Why people create and spread false information
  • What is the damage caused by creating and spreading false information
Suggested Focus Areas
Examples of Information Sources
    1. Assessing the Credibility of a Source
    2. Differentiating Fact from Opinion
False Information
    1. Deepfakes
    2. Disinformation VS Misinformation
    3. Why People Create and Spread False Information
    4. Consequences of the Creation and Dissemination of False Information
LO4

Understand how to protect oneself on the Internet

Learning Objectives

Individuals will learn:

  • What is cyber wellness
  • What are the threats and risk of social media
  • How to guard againts the threats and risks of social media
  • How to check the credibility of information encountered or received
Suggested Focus Areas

Cyber Wellness

Threats and Risks of Social Media

How to Guard Against Social Media Threats

How to Check the Credibility of Information Encountered or Received

LO5

Understand how to use digital technologies safely and responsibly

Learning Objectives

Protect Personal Data and Cybersecurity, including:

  • How to secure digital devices and online accounts
  • How to adjust privacy settings across different social media platforms
  • The difference between secured and unsecured Wi-Fi networks, and implications of using each of them
  • Common concepts in cybersecurity like encryption and virtual private networks (VPN)


Guard Against Online Scams and Cyber Threats, including:

  • What are the different types of online scams
  • What phishing is and how to recognise the tell-tale signs
  • How to respond to an online scam
  • What are the different types of cyber threats
  • What cyber threats and malware can do
  • What to do to guard against cyber threats
Suggested Focus Areas
Protecting Personal Data and Cybersecurity
    1. Protecting Personal Data
    2. Common Concepts in Cybersecurity
Online Scams and Cyber Threats
    1. Types of Online Scams
    2. How to Respond to Online Scams
    3. Types of Cyber Threats
    4. How to Guard Against Cyber Threats

Additional Resources

Here are some additional websites for individuals and organisations to keep up to date on the latest information, news and resources around digital media and information literacy:

  • Media Literacy Council’s Better Internet Campaign website contains various articles, tip sheets and guides for parents, youth and educators on a range of digital literacy issues, including cyber-bullying, fake news and privacy concerns.
  • National Crime Prevention Council’s Scam Alert website contains a repository of the latest scam stories, statistics and multi-media resources for the general public. Find out more at https://www.scamalert.sg/.
  • National Library Board’s Source. Understand. Research. Evaluate. (S.U.R.E.) website contains resources and tip sheets on fact-checking and information literacy in all four languages. Find out more at https://www.nlb.gov.sg/sure/sure-campaign/.
  • Cyber Security Agency of Singapore’s GoSafeOnline website contains various resources for parents, students and businesses on topics around personal data protection and cyber hygiene. Find out more at https://www.csa.gov.sg/gosafeonline.
  • Personal Data Protection Commission Singapore's website contains resources for organisations and individuals on protecting personal data and more information about the Personal Data Protection Act. Find out more at https://www.pdpc.gov.sg/.